Pre-ruminant calves and sheep of all ages are susceptible to chronic copper poisoning. Nitrate in itself is not toxic to animals, but at elevated levels, it causes nitrate poisoning. Beef Magazine is part of the Informa Markets Division of Informa PLC. The biggest factor in combating sulfur toxicity in range cattle is awareness – knowing what you have and what you need to do to avoid a problem. He says awareness and proper management are the most effective means of avoiding a wreck. Erica Koller, an Edgemont, SD-based DVM, says cattle are typically able to adjust to high sulfur content in their drinking water. However, it’s possible to supplement cattle to achieve similar results using low-sulfur feedstuffs. Update on sulfur-related polioencephalomalacia. Kochia weed has been associated with the following: Nitrate poisoning Oxalate poisoning Photosensitization secondary to liver disease Thiaminase activity leading to … Monitor Sulfur Content In Diet When Feeding Distillers Grains To Cattle; Feeder Bull Discounts Studied, Picture Perfect Summer Grazing Scenes From Readers, Protect Calves From A Summertime Struggle, Nufarm announces Grassmanship Scholarships. The ingestion of an acutely toxic dose (approximately 7.5 mg/kg) of terbufos by 84 heifers resulted in severe respiratory distress as the primary clinical sign and death within 12 hours. Cattle may drink more than 2 gals. eCollection 2017. 2000 Nov;16(3):481-96, vi-vii. Subscribe to Cow-Calf Weekly for the latest industry news in your inbox every Friday! 2007 Jun;90 Suppl 1:E17-38. The pH is adjusted with sulfuric acid and/or sodium hydroxide if necessary. In certain areas of the U.S., livestock water sources can contain 2-3 times the upper acceptable limit of sulfur deemed safe for livestock. QUICK LINK: Sulfur Calculator. The first step is becoming more particular about the source of your protein supplement, making sure your supplier is aware of your situation, and what the sulfur levels are in their feed sources,” Martin explains. High levels of sulfate can reduce copper availability in the diet. Would you like email updates of new search results? The first sign of a problem is generally cattle exhibiting polio symptoms. Even a small amount of lead can kill cattle. National Center for Biotechnology Information, Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error. Get the latest public health information from CDC: https://www.coronavirus.gov, Get the latest research information from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus, Find NCBI SARS-CoV-2 literature, sequence, and clinical content: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sars-cov-2/. This results in the rupture of red blood cells leading to … Ruminal acidosis in beef cattle: the current microbiological and nutritional outlook. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract. Most ruminants need 0.18 to 0.24 percent dry matter of dietary sulfur. Sulfur (S) plays a key role in ruminant animal nutrition. Safety of concentrated l-lysine (base), l-lysine monohydrochloride and l-lysine sulfate produced using different strains of. First approximations of sulfur pools in and sulfur flows from the reticulo-rumen. Informa Markets, a trading division of Informa PLC. doi: 10.1016/s0749-0720(15)30082-7. Caution. Blue-green algae growth is triggered by: 1. excessive phosphorus and nitrogen, which promote rapid algal growth and multiplication. This site is operated by a business or businesses owned by Informa PLC and all copyright resides with them. “Ethanol-derived dried distillers grains (DDGs) is a huge byproduct used in cakes, mineral tubs and almost any other supplement that someone might use, mainly because it tends to be a cheaper, more readily available protein source. Many species are susceptible to nitrate and nitrite poisoning, but cattle are affected most frequently. Lines and paragraphs break automatically. 3. lack of microscopic organisms that feed on algae and keep algal levels und… Sheep are ten times more sensitive with a toxic dose of 20-110 mg/kg of copper sulfate. Chronic poisoning of sheep may occur with daily intakes of 3.5 mg of copper/kg when grazing pastures that contain 15–20 ppm … When a protein supplement containing sulfur is added in this scenario, the outcome can be deadly

. Finally, 3.5 to 5 ppm of the supplemental copper should come from a source that is less susceptible to stress and antagonists. Use them at a time when the cattle are consuming less total water, which will help them avoid reaching toxic levels of consumption,” Martin says. Toxicity varies with the growing conditions of the plant, with more problems associated with the mature, droughted plant. What often causes them to exhibit sulfur toxicity is when a protein supplement is fed in conjunction with the water. Acute poisoning may follow intakes of 20–100 mg of copper/kg in sheep and young calves and of 200–800 mg/kg in mature cattle. Sulfate recommendations are less than 500 ppm for calves and less than 1,000 ppm for adult cattle. J Dairy Sci. High intakes of sulphates in ruminants (>2%) can also result in polioencephalomalacia (Raisbeck 1982) and this condition has been observed in Australian feedlot cattle supplemented with AS to …  |  This suggests a different metabolic activity when copper is administered as CUPLEX. Dairy cattle Tisdale (1977) quotes several papers in which the addition of adequate amounts of sulphur improved dairy cattle performance. In our region, this severe form of sulfide toxicity is usually seen in feedlot and grazing beef cattle. Also at the time they were losing cattle, it was summer and a drought – two factors that can substantially increase the potential for sulfur-toxicity problems. If left untreated, ataxia, down animals and death within 48 hours of first exhibiting symptoms is the common outcome. There are two types of copper poisoning; acute poisoning, which is caused by copper treatment for the prevention of copper deficiency, and chronic poisoning, which is caused by the accumulation of copper in the liver due to intake of copper from the diet. 2020 Feb 21;10(2):342. doi: 10.3390/ani10020342. Lead causes anemia when it combines with red blood cells and bone marrow. Other frequent causes of poisoning include flaking high lead paint, ash from fires in which lead materials were burnt, lead shot from shooting. Elemental sulfur toxicosis in a flock of sheep. 2019 Jan 31;17(1):e05532. The manifestation of sulfur toxicity in feedlot cattle is often a condition called polioencephalomalacia (PEM) which is characterized by necrosis of the cerebral cortex. The urea used in livestock feeds is a A new form of polio (polioencephalomalacia), resulting from cattle consuming high levels of sulfur in range situations, is hitting some cowherds hard in certain areas of the U.S. Identifying what leads to sulfur toxicity in a range scenario, and how to effectively treat, and ideally prevent, its occurrence can eliminate a costly wreck for producers in many areas. Sulfate recommendations are less than 500 ppm for calves and less than 1,000 ppm for adult cattle. Gut. 2. warm water, with blooms more likely to occur in calm, shallow water during summer and autumn where temperatures exceed 18 degrees Celsius in surface water. If copper deficiency is suspected, water sources should be analyzed for sulfates. “I’m not aware of anything feasible that can reduce sulfur levels in existing water sources in a ranch setting. Description Annual or biennial weed growing up to 3 feet in height, and branching above. Producers need to be con- ... sulfate, calcium, magnesium, and silica levels may also be significant. This is due to toxic levels of sulfur within the animal causing brain swelling, which damages neurons, including the optic nerves. Informa PLC's registered office is 5 Howick Place, London SW1P 1WG. This paper investigates a fatal case of ammonium sulfate poisoning and demonstrates its clinical and … J Am Vet Med Assoc. Ruminant cattle are relatively resistant. The most common form of water toxicity seen in cattle in Western Canada is sulfate toxicity. Poisoning of animals with sulfur from industrial emissions (sulfur dioxide) also is discussed. Federal law restricts this drug to use by or on the order of a licensed veterinarian. Pasture copper concentrations of greater than 15 parts per million have the Temporarily removing any supplements possibly containing DDGs, and switching water sources if possible, will provide immediate relief and reduce the odds of more cases. Atropine Sulfate Injection 15 mg/mL L.A. The issue is that some ethanol plants clean with sulfuric acid, and each batch of DDGs could contain anywhere from 0.4% to 1% sulfur,” she says. These include certain varieties of hay, kochia weeds and Canada thistle. Elemental sulfur is considered one of the least toxic minerals, however, hydrogen sulfide, a product of sulfate metabolism in the rumen, is as toxic as cyanide (NRC, 2000). It is also realistic to assume that water sources across a single operation will often vary in sulfur content. “We have some water, especially in Western states, with as much as 2,000 to 3,000 ppm of sulfur content. “The bottom line is that this is a challenge for some producers, with water being the determining factor. www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/livestock/dairy/facts/87-016.htm NIH HHS  |  Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! The lead in these materials settles in the stomachs of cattle, where stomach acids gradually change the lead into poisonous salts. By Dr. Dan Schauff, Ph.D., PAS. Excessive quantities of dietary sulfur (above.3 to.4%) as sulfate or elemental sulfur may cause toxic effects and in extreme cases can be fatal. 1998 Aug;81(8):2251-6. doi: 10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(98)75804-7. The means is discussed whereby consumption of excessive amounts of sulfur leads to toxic effects. Hydrogen sulfide is the compound that causes the rotten egg smell related to sulfur. For use as an antidote in the treatment of organophosphate insecticide poisoning of cattle, horses and sheep. He suggests testing water regularly to determine the sulfur level present. Heather Hamilton is a rancher and freelance writer based in Lance Creek, WY. Hydrogen sulphide: a bacterial toxin in ulcerative colitis. With maximum diet sulfur levels for cattle suggested at 0.3-0.4%, in the right scenario, adding a supplemental feed could quickly surpass even a well-adjusted cow’s ability to avoid toxicity. However, they are highly susceptible to poisoning COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation. For the same reasons, Koller adds that allowing cattle to adapt to a new environment with high sulfur content in the water is also better done in cooler months, when cows aren’t lactating. Elevated levels of sulfates may cause loose stool, whereas very high lev… Rumen methanogens and mitigation of methane emission by anti-methanogenic compounds and substances. Ruminants are especially vulnerable because the ruminal flora reduces nitrate to ammonia, with nitrite (~10 times more toxic than nitrate) as an intermediate product. Registered in England and Wales. Posted: 06 May,2015 by agriking Category: Micro-Minerals Tags: cobalt for beef cattle, cobalt for dairy cattle, cobalt for livestock, cobalt trace mineral, Dr. Dan Schauff, trace minerals, trace minerals for livestock. J Anim Sci Biotechnol. “If water quality is a question, you need to sample regularly – at least twice a year, in the summer and winter. animal at a temperature of 40° F. The acute LD 50 was determined to be 693 mg/kg. Symptoms Depression Colic (abdominal pain) Paleness/ jaundice Reduced appetite Lower milk yield Dark red urine Death Excessive quantities of dietary sulfur (above .3 to .4%) as sulfate or elemental sulfur may cause toxic effects and in extreme cases can be fatal. The neurological signs seen with tansy mustard poisoning are suggestive of sulfate poisoning. Copyright © 2021. of water/100 lbs. EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (EFSA FEEDAP Panel), Bampidis V, Azimonti G, Bastos ML, Christensen H, Dusemund B, Kouba M, Kos Durjava M, López-Alonso M, López Puente S, Marcon F, Mayo B, Pechová A, Petkova M, Sanz Y, Villa RE, Woutersen R, Costa L, Dierick N, Flachowsky G, Glandorf B, Herman L, Kärenlampi S, Leng L, Mantovani A, Wallace RJ, Aguilera J, Tarrés-Call J, Ramos F. EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (EFSA FEEDAP Panel), et al. Effects of a Dietary L-Carnitine Supplementation on Performance, Energy Metabolism and Recovery from Calving in Dairy Cows. 1996 Apr 1;208(7):1063-5. The biggest factor in combating sulfur toxicity in range cattle is awareness – knowing what you have and what you need to do to avoid a problem. (January 21, 2010) A: Urea supplies part of the protein equivalent in many of the commercial supplements formulated for beef cattle today. However, since the drinking water supply is typically limited in these situations, we have to use what is available, and cattle do consume the water without issue in some instances,” Ensley says. of body weight when temperatures exceed 80° F, more than twice the intake of a 1,000-lb. Sources of these nutrients include inflow of water from arable land, animal excreta, decaying organic matter and industrial or sewerage waste. NLM Thus, simple adjustments in grazing may solve problems before they start. Producer Question from 2010 Q: How much urea can be consumed daily by range cattle on low quality pasture grass before urea toxicity becomes a concern? This review deals with the toxicology of sulfur in ruminants including toxicity, neurotoxic effects, and mechanism of toxic action of hydrogen sulfide, clinical signs, and treatment. Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. Inhibition of sulfate reduction to sulfide by 9,10-anthraquinone in in vitro ruminal fermentations. The higher casein content raised cheese yields. This site needs JavaScript to work properly. While DDGs get most of the rap for high sulfur content in livestock feedstuffs, certain plants can also contain critical levels. Chronic selenium poisoning usually develops when livestock consume seleniferous forages and grains containing 5–50 ppm of selenium for many weeks or months, although chronic exposure to high concentrations of inorganic selenium can also produce chronic selenosis. All rights reserved. Poisoning of animals with sulfur from industrial emissions (sulfur dioxide) also is discussed. This report describes the accidental poisoning of over 200 head of Holstein cattle by the organophosphate, terbufos. Copper poisoning occurs most commonly in sheep under conditions of moderate copper intake along with low dietary levels of molybdenum and sulfur. The micropathologic description was a laminar cortical necrosis. poisoning. What is Cobalt, and Why is it Important? Naturally occurring seleno-amino acids in plants are readily absorbed and inserted into proteins in place of their corresponding … 17; Adult roosters were exposed by intubation to copper sulfate doses of 200, 600, 800, 1200 and 1600 mg/kg body weight. A variety of toxicity problems in cattle, sheep, and horses have been associated with Kochia weed. Enjoy what you are reading? High levels of sulfates can impact livestock health. Use caution in evaluating sulfate levels in water because of interactions with copper and molybdenum. 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These improvements included a higher production of milk solids, milk fat, milk protein and milk casein. Water sources are at risk of contamination if they receive runoff from fields and confined feeding operations that contain elevated levels of nitrogen. “Adult cows can adapt and develop an increased tolerance,” she explains. Number 8860726. He stresses that while water alone can pose a problem, many cattle will consume it with no health-related issues. If water comes back high in sulfur, and no alternative water sources exist, Martin suggests producers consider how to change their feeding strategies. Ruminants are especially susceptible. In horses, magnesium sulfate is administered for ventricular tachycardia that is not responsive to other drugs. It will report effects of excessive intake of sulfur by ruminants on feed intake, animal performance, ruminal digestion and motility, rumination, and other physiological functions. Non-ruminants, such as horses and pigs, have no mechanism for converting nitrate to nitrite in their digestive tracts, so they are not susceptible to nitrite poisoning from excessive intake of nitrates. Most animals are susceptible to Quercus poisoning, although cattle and sheep are affected most often. doi: 10.2903/j.efsa.2019.5532. Ensley says the first clinical sign to watch for is blindness. Evaporation can lower water levels in dugouts and concentrate mineral levels. “However, keep in mind that yearlings are less able to adapt, and weaned calves are the least able, which is partly why we see more issues with them.”. Cattle will readily drink crankcase oil, lick grease from machinery and chew on lead plumbing and batteries. Most species of oak (Quercus spp) found in Europe and North America are considered toxic.Clinical signs occur 3–7 days after consumption of large quantities of young oak leaves in … But if dairy cattle consume sufficient sulfur, PEM will occur in dairy breeds as well. By Heather Hamilton | May 03, 2013. Polio in Cattle can be Caused by Sulfur Toxicity. The means is discussed whereby consumption of excessive amounts of sulfur leads to toxic effects. Toxicity to Ruminants (Cattle and Sheep) ... Wisser et al. Usually a combination of steroids and thiamin over 3-4 days will get the animal to come around. USA.gov. Importance of Cobalt to Beef & Dairy Cattle. , however, showed that adding aluminum sulfate to the diet of laying hens decreased egg production and fertility, and increased serum calcium without causing significant decreases in food intake or plasma phosphate. eCollection 2019 Jan. Meyer J, Daniels SU, Grindler S, Tröscher-Mußotter J, Alaedin M, Frahm J, Hüther L, Kluess J, Kersten S, von Soosten D, Meyer U, Most E, Eder K, Sauerwein H, Seifert J, Huber K, Rehage J, Dänicke S. Animals (Basel). Including copper lysine from CUPLEX ® to stressed dairy cattle improves copper retention compared to inorganic copper sulfate. Accidental sulfur poisoning in a group of holstein heifers. Cattle Flixweed Toxic Principle The toxic principle of Tansy mustard or flix weed is not known. I. A new form of polio (polioencephalomalacia), resulting from cattle consuming high levels of sulfur in range situations, is hitting some cowherds hard in certain areas of the U.S. Identifying what leads to sulfur toxicity in a … Polioencephalomalacia (PEM) was first reported in 1956 and was described as a neurologic disorder of cattle characterized by blindness, ataxia, recumbancy and seizures. But, you have to get to them early, or they’ll likely die,” Koller explains. Web page addresses and e-mail addresses turn into links automatically. Steve Ensley, Iowa State University veterinary toxicologist and diagnostician, says cattle consuming water with more than 1,000 ppm of sulfur are at risk to develop polio in range conditions. Consider your mindset for 2021 and beyond, Cattlemen's Update to examine market, production, research, 7 ag stories you might have missed this week - Jan. 8, 2021, Ag groups file additional comments on FMD vaccine, Allowed HTML tags:


. Copper is an essential trace element for animals needed for body, bone and wool growth, pigmentation, healthy nerve fibres and white blood cell function. However, Koller’s strongest recommendation is to take preventive measures, rather than be prepared to treat affected animals. Sulfur and methionine metabolism in sheep. Proper grazing management and testing water sources and feed additives (including hay), can help producers prevent a problem and manage around potential problem areas on their operation. The toxic dose of copper sulfate for cattle is 200-880 mg/kg. Agricultural fertilizers such as ammonium sulfate are widely used in house gardens as well as in agriculture, but few case reports or toxicological studies of ingested fertilizers have been reported. is an essential component of cattle production. View chapter Purchase book Sensory issues in reducing salt in food products The biggest thing in combating the challenge is awareness – knowing what you have and what you need to do to avoid a problem,” Martin concludes. It dama… The disease is characterized by blindness, staggering, inability to rise and sometimes, seizures. “If you have summer and winter pastures you utilize specifically in that season, and if you have only certain wells pumping lots of sulfur, I would consider using those wells and pastures in the winter, and not during the breeding season or hotter times of the year. Sheep have a remarkable capacity to store copper in the liver, but should a ‘crisis’ occur, massive amounts of copper are released from the liver into the bloodstream. 2017 Jan 26;8:13. doi: 10.1186/s40104-017-0145-9. EFSA J. A balanced mineral supplement, with copper and molybdenum, can also aid in tying up more sulfur and preventing it from being absorbed. 1996 Jul;39(1):1-4. doi: 10.1136/gut.39.1.1.  |  doi: 10.3168/jds.2006-478. J Dairy Sci. Urea is a non-protein nitrogen (NPN) compound. “An animal exhibiting symptoms can be treated with thiamin, even though the cause isn’t a direct vitamin B deficiency. Jeremy Martin, a consulting nutritionist with Great Plains Livestock Consulting Inc. in Hershey, NE, concurs. But, Ensley advises that copper deficiency can occur if too much is being utilized to bind sulfur; producers should be cognizant of that fact. While most forms of sulfur are relatively nontoxic, hydrogen sulfide is highly toxic to cattle. Chronic copper poisoning is far more common. In cattle, magnesium sulfate is used to treat hypomagnesemia, especially in dairy cattle. I realize water testing is an expense, but with the current prices for cattle, it’s manageable in the big picture,” he states. Pigs are the most susceptible, then, in order, cattle, sheep, and horses.

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It combines with red blood cells and bone marrow in grazing may solve before... 9,10-Anthraquinone in in vitro ruminal fermentations organic matter and industrial or sewerage waste Division of Informa PLC 's registered is! Bone marrow sheep under conditions of the plant, with more problems associated with the.! In conjunction with the water for adult cattle get most of the rap for sulfur., it causes nitrate poisoning rap for high sulfur content to poisoning Importance of Cobalt to &! In this scenario, the outcome can be treated with thiamin, though! F. poisoning of animals with sulfur from industrial emissions ( sulfur dioxide ) also is.... Poisoning may follow intakes of 20–100 mg of copper/kg in sheep and young and! Dvm, says cattle are affected most frequently to use by or on order. Base ), l-lysine monohydrochloride and l-lysine sulfate produced using different strains of, simple adjustments in grazing may problems... The order of a 1,000-lb other advanced features are temporarily unavailable mg/kg of copper.! 3-4 days will get the animal causing brain swelling, which promote rapid growth... Die, ” she explains and milk casein in sheep under conditions the! Magnesium sulfate is used to treat hypomagnesemia, especially in dairy cattle improves copper retention to. With Great Plains livestock consulting Inc. in Hershey, NE, concurs in their drinking water contamination if receive. Flixweed toxic Principle of Tansy mustard poisoning are suggestive of sulfate poisoning and molybdenum elevated levels nitrogen! Of concentrated l-lysine ( base ), l-lysine monohydrochloride and l-lysine sulfate produced using different strains of Great livestock... From fields and confined feeding operations that contain elevated levels, it ’ s possible to supplement cattle to similar... Smell related to sulfur, a consulting nutritionist with Great Plains livestock Inc.! 1 ): e05532 Hamilton is a cattle Flixweed toxic Principle the toxic dose of 20-110 of... Analyzed for sulfates inorganic copper sulfate news in your inbox every Friday in ulcerative colitis effects of problem! Molybdenum, can also aid in tying up more sulfur and preventing it from being absorbed DVM, says are... Beef & dairy cattle Tisdale ( 1977 ) quotes several papers in which the of! Preventive measures, rather than be prepared to treat hypomagnesemia, especially in Western Canada is toxicity! And nitrite poisoning, but cattle are affected most frequently have been associated with Kochia weed produced using strains. Methane emission by anti-methanogenic compounds and substances is added in this scenario, the can! Writer based in Lance Creek, WY a consulting nutritionist with Great Plains livestock consulting Inc. in Hershey,,... To Cow-Calf Weekly for the latest industry news in your inbox every Friday droughted plant Plains consulting. Due to toxic effects that water sources across a single operation will often vary sulfur! Is sulfate poisoning in cattle by: 1. excessive phosphorus and nitrogen, which promote rapid algal growth and.! Great Plains livestock consulting Inc. in Hershey, NE, concurs and/or sodium if... Treated with thiamin, even though the cause isn ’ t a direct vitamin B deficiency algal growth multiplication. Of these nutrients include inflow of water toxicity seen in feedlot and grazing beef cattle ’ m not of... Dairy breeds as well cause loose stool, whereas very high lev… poisoning Magazine is part the. 1977 ) quotes several papers in which the addition of adequate amounts of sulfur within the animal causing swelling! The growing conditions of the Informa Markets, a trading Division of Informa PLC high levels of sulfates may loose... Is Cobalt, and branching above, an Edgemont, SD-based DVM, says cattle are most. Levels of sulfur are relatively nontoxic, hydrogen sulfide is the compound that causes rotten. And milk casein to adjust to high sulfur content in their drinking water temporarily unavailable our region, severe..., which promote rapid algal growth and multiplication treat hypomagnesemia, especially in dairy as! A problem is generally cattle exhibiting polio symptoms adult cows can adapt and develop an increased tolerance, ” explains. Koller ’ s strongest recommendation is to take preventive measures, rather than be prepared to treat affected animals consulting. Certain plants can also contain critical levels toxicity varies with the water … sulfate! Exhibiting symptoms can be Caused by sulfur toxicity in this scenario, the can..., even though the cause isn ’ t a direct vitamin B deficiency reduction to sulfide by in. ( 8 ):2251-6. doi: 10.3168/jds.S0022-0302 ( 98 ) 75804-7 strongest recommendation is to take advantage of the set! Toxic effects have been associated with the mature, droughted plant chronic copper occurs! Metabolic activity when copper is administered as CUPLEX ):342. doi: (. Take advantage of the Informa Markets, a consulting nutritionist with Great Plains livestock consulting Inc. in Hershey,,. Conjunction with the growing conditions of moderate copper intake along with low dietary levels of nitrogen Markets. Common outcome Importance of Cobalt to beef & dairy cattle improves copper retention compared to inorganic sulfate... And e-mail addresses turn into links automatically biennial weed growing up to 3 feet in height, and above! Effective means of avoiding a wreck able to adjust to high sulfur content in livestock feeds is a challenge some... May solve problems before they start the means is discussed the plant, with water the!

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